Its Development in Men and Women is a book about the development of sexual orientation by the psychologist Alan P. Bell and the sociologists Martin S.
Weinberg and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, in which the authors reevaluate what were at the time of its publication widely held ideas about the origins of heterosexuality and homosexualitysometimes rejecting entirely the factors proposed as causes, and in other cases concluding that their importance had been exaggerated. Together with its Statistical AppendixSexual Preference was the conclusion of a series of books including Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography and Homosexualities: Using data derived from interviews conducted in and with subjects in the San Francisco Bay AreaBell et al.
They found that while homosexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to have felt especially close to their mothers, this had almost no effect on the development
Sexual orientation ap psychology book male homosexuality. Poor father-son relationships appeared to be weakly connected to male homosexuality. Homosexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to describe their relationships with their mothers as negative, and to have detached or hostile fathers, but only the latter factor seemed significant.
In both sexes, but especially in men, homosexuality was connected to "Childhood Gender Nonconformity", which was a measure partly of behavior more typical of the opposite sex and partly of subjective feelings of masculinity and femininity. Sexual abuse and labeling by others played no significant role.
They suggested that while bisexuality is subject to influence by social and sexual learning, the development of
Sexual orientation ap psychology book and homosexuality may have a biological basis, possibly influenced by hormonal factors. They hoped that demonstrating a biological basis to homosexuality would have beneficial effects such as increasing tolerance of gay people. Seen as likely to provoke controversy even before its publication, Sexual Preference received considerable media attention, and mixed reviews.
Critics questioned Bell et al. Nevertheless, some reviewers complimented Sexual Preference for its authors' challenge to established views about the causes of homosexuality, and it eventually came to be considered a classic work.
It is one of the most frequently cited retrospective studies relating to sexual orientation, credited by psychologists with disproving psychoanalytic theories about the development of homosexuality. It was the last study on homosexuality released by the Institute for Sex Research.
Together with its separately published Statistical AppendixSexual Preference was the concluding volume of a series of books including Homosexuality: Weinberg, Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, The study's data were derived from interviews conducted in and with " homosexual and heterosexual men and women living in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The interview schedule included approximately questions. Most offered respondents a limited number of possible answers, though some allowed respondents to answer as they wished. In their view, theories about the origins of sexual orientation had usually not been rigorously tested prior to their study, partly because some of them, including those advanced by psychoanalysts, use concepts which are hard to "pin down and operationalize.
They argued, however, that the fact that their data was not obtained from "Sexual orientation ap psychology book" sources was a strength, that attempting to access unconscious
Sexual orientation ap psychology book risks selective interpretation of the data, and that "if the differences between homosexual and heterosexual patterns of development Sexual orientation ap psychology book really as great as psychoanalytic theory claims" then such differences would be reflected to at least some extent in the reports of their respondents.
They observed that some gay rights activists might object to their study on principle, and suspect that they wanted to find a way to prevent homosexuality. However, they argued that ideas about the development of homosexuality contribute to prejudice against homosexuals, and that so long as heterosexuals accepted largely untested theories that see homosexuality as the result of a bad upbringing, their negative attitudes toward homosexuals would never change.
They considered their sample of homosexual adults more representative than those used in previous studies, and argued that examining blacks separately from whites, and men separately from women, helped them to determine the extent to which patterns of homosexual and heterosexual development depend on race and sex.
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They wrote that while Bell, a psychologist and therapist, was "relatively supportive of psychodynamic theory", Weinberg and Hammersmith were sociologists with a different outlook. They did not believe that completing their study earlier would have altered their findings.
They used path analysis, a statistical technique originally developed for use in the biological sciences, to try to establish which factors were most important. It required dividing "the independent variables into sequential stages, according to the time when their influences are most likely to occur.
Male respondents who were unusually close to their mothers were more likely to describe themselves as having been feminine children, but only a
Sexual orientation ap psychology book of boys with this kind of background became homosexual. They were also more likely to feel more similar to their mothers than to their fathers, or to prefer to be like their mothers. Few male respondents had engaged in childhood sex play, and it did not seem to be important in the development of homosexuality.
Homosexual men were less likely to report having enjoyed boys' activities such as football and to see themselves as having been very masculine while growing up, but more likely to report having enjoyed stereotypical girls' activities. Three variables dislike of typical boys' activities, enjoying typical girls' activities, and feelings of masculinity or femininity were combined into a composite measure called "Childhood Gender Nonconformity", which proved to be the most important developmental variable.
Homosexual men were more likely to recall having felt different from other boys
Sexual orientation ap psychology book age, or to say that they felt different because they did not like sport, or because they were not interested in girls or were sexually interested in other boys. They were also more likely to report feeling different because they had stereotypical feminine traits or interests. Feeling different during childhood appeared to be irrelevant, but feeling different for gender reasons during adolescence had "modest total effects".
While homosexual men were more likely to have been labeled sexually different or homosexual before the age of 19, this apparently played no significant role in the development of sexual orientation.
Homosexual men tended to have had their first homosexual encounter at a younger age, and were more likely to have their first encounters with friends or acquaintances rather than strangers. The data did not support the idea that homosexual males are likely to have been seduced
Sexual orientation ap psychology book older men.
Homosexual activity involving genital contact in childhood was connected to adult homosexuality, though only weakly; homosexual arousal during childhood or adolescence was a stronger predictor of adult homosexuality.
Heterosexual arousal during childhood was a moderate predictor of adult heterosexuality.
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Phenomena associated with sexual maturation, such as the age of first ejaculationdid not seem to be important, and neither did parental attitudes toward sex. Respondents' opportunities to engage in sex with persons of the opposite or the same sex did not seem to be an important influence on the sexual preference they developed, and sexual experiences with persons of both the same and the opposite sex were common among both homosexuals and heterosexuals.
Sexual feelings appeared to be more important than sexual behavior as an indicator of adult sexual preference. Homosexual women were more likely to describe their relationships with their mothers as negative, and their mothers as having been hostile or rejecting. These measures were combined into a single measure, "Hostile-Rejecting Mother", which appeared to have only minimal influence on the development of sexual preference.
This and two other connected variables were combined into a composite measure called "Unpleasant
Sexual orientation ap psychology book, which had a weak and indirect connection with adult homosexuality. Homosexual women gave less favorable descriptions of their relationships with their fathers, and were more likely to have negative feelings toward them, and to describe them as having been hostile or detached.
These variables were combined into a measure called "Detached-Hostile Father", which appeared
Sexual orientation ap psychology book encourage childhood gender nonconformity and adolescent homosexual involvement. Navigation menu
Few female respondents reported engaging in sex play with their siblings, and it seemed to have no role in the development of sexual preference. Homosexual women were less likely to report having enjoyed typical girls' activities, but more likely to report having enjoyed typical boys' activities, such as football, and to describe themselves as having been very masculine while they were growing up.
These and other variables were combined into a "Childhood Gender Nonconformity" measure, which proved to be the second strongest predictor of homosexuality. Homosexual women were more likely to recall having felt different from other girls their age during grade school and high school years, and to say that they felt different because they were more masculine than other
Sexual orientation ap psychology book, more interested in sports, or not interested in boys.
Homosexual women were also more likely to have felt sexually different.
However, these feelings did not appear to play a role in the development of female homosexuality. Homosexual women, unlike heterosexual women, were sometimes labeled sexually different or homosexual before the age of 19, but such labeling also appeared to play no significant role in the development of female homosexuality.
Homosexual arousal in childhood appeared to predict adult homosexuality, while homosexual activities and arousal during adolescence had a very strong connection with adult homosexuality.
Rape and sexual molestation did not appear to be significant in the development of homosexuality. Heterosexual arousal during childhood had a very small effect on adult sexual preference.
Homosexual women were more likely to have their first homosexual encounter before their first heterosexual encounter. Phenomena associated with physical maturation, such as the age at which menstruation began, did not appear to play a significant role in the development of sexual preference, while parental attitudes toward sex and failure to enjoy early heterosexual activity also seemed unimportant.
Sexual feelings seemed important in the development of adult homosexuality. The results for black men were in general the same as those for white men, except that while the "Identification with Father" variable had some significance for white men,
Sexual orientation ap psychology book had none for black men, and whereas for white men pre-adult sexual feelings were important in the development of adult homosexuality, childhood and adolescent
Sexual orientation ap psychology book activities were important for black men.
They concluded that psychodynamic theories exaggerate the role of parents in the development of their sons' sexual orientation, and that the psychoanalytic model that attributes male homosexuality to dominant mothers and weak fathers is inadequate. They found the idea that "cold, detached" fathers and poor father-son relationships predispose boys toward homosexuality more plausible, but emphasized that these factors have only an indirect connection to sexual preference.
They also rejected sociological theories such as the idea that homosexuality results from labeling by others. Overall, they concluded that sexual preference is likely to be already determined by the time boys and girls reach adolescence, and that there is a powerful link between gender nonconformity and the development of homosexuality in both sexes, but especially in men.
Although stressing that their model "applies only to extant theories and does not create new ones", they wrote that they had identified "a pattern of feelings and reactions within the child that cannot be traced back to a single social or psychological root".
Different kinds of homosexuals were compared. The "Identification with Father" variable appeared to be important in the development of homosexuality among effeminate white homosexual men.
Pre-adult homosexual behavior was more important among men who were not effeminate. They found that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings for white bisexual men than it was for white homosexual men.
They concluded that exclusive homosexuality tends to emerge from a "deep-seated predisposition" but that bisexuality is "more subject to influence by social and sexual learning. Exclusively homosexual white men tended to report that they had not identified with their fathers, but there was no significant tendency for white bisexual men not to identify with their fathers.
Only white homosexual
Sexual orientation ap psychology book who had undergone psychotherapy had "paternal variables" that were consistent with what clinicians had considered typical of homosexual males.
Bisexual women appeared to be more influenced by involvement in homosexual genital activities in childhood than exclusively homosexual women, but unlike exclusively homosexual women, their homosexual preference did not appear related to inability to experience heterosexual arousal in childhood. Childhood gender nonconformity appeared more significant for exclusively homosexual women than for bisexual women, and more significant for women who had been in psychotherapy than for women who had not.
They wrote that while there was an ongoing debate over the origins of homosexuality, there is evidence supporting the view that homosexuality has a biological basis, and that hormonal factors could be involved. They could not explain how sexual preference might be related to biology, but considered their findings consistent with what one would expect to find if it had a biological basis.
They suggested that biological factors have a more powerful influence on exclusive homosexuals than on bisexuals, and that if there is a biological basis to homosexuality, it accounts for gender nonconformity as well as sexual orientation.
They also proposed that the "familial factors commonly thought to account for homosexuality" may actually result from the way parents react to their prehomosexual children. They expressed hope that researchers would eventually produce more definitive answers about the origins of homosexuality.
Sexual Preference was first published in by Indiana University Press. Prior to its publication, Jane E. Brody wrote in The New York Times that Sexual Preference was likely to cause controversy because of its findings and its reliance on path analysis and its subjects' memories. Brody noted that path analysis could be misused and
Sexual orientation ap psychology book it "can only explore existing notions, not create new ones.
Halgin in Library Journala negative review from the sociologist John Gagnon in The New York Timesa notice in Newsweekand a discussion in The Chronicle of Higher Educationwhich focused on the controversy surrounding the book. The following year, the book received a negative review from Michael Ignatieff in the London Review of Books.
The work was faulted for the questionable representativeness of its sample of homosexuals, but those who reviewed it positively praised it for the sophistication of its path analysis. Robinson suggested that Bell et al. He maintained that their study's empirical foundation and path analysis gave
Sexual orientation ap psychology book et al.
Robinson credited Bell et al. He lamented that unlike Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Femalewhich gained popular attention, Sexual Preference "seems destined for academic oblivion. Gagnon considered Sexual Preference a politically motivated study that would inevitably be received as a political and moral statement.
He noted that its authors' conclusion that the lack of correlation between sexual orientation and early family experience means that the development of heterosexuality and homosexuality must be based on a biological predisposition was controversial. These flashcard sets follow along with MYERS' PSYCHOLOGY FOR AP, 2nd Edition, an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression.
What has research taught us about sexual orientation? From David G. Myers, Psychology, 10th Edition (New York: Worth Publishers.Gender Roles, behaviors that tend to be associated with being male or
Sexual orientation ap psychology book.Gender Identity, your identity as it is experienced with.
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Sexual Orientation Development - AP Psychology Project
Its Development in Men and Women is a book about the development of sexual orientation by the psychologist Alan P. , Gender Roles, behaviors that tend to be associated with being male or female. , Gender Identity, your identity as it is experienced with. These flashcard sets follow along with MYERS' PSYCHOLOGY FOR AP, 2nd Edition, an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression. Demographic structure of society - sex, gender, and sexual orientation (video) | Khan Academy AP Psychology Chapter Gender & Sexuality | CourseNotes Ch 8 Vocab from ap psychology book myers Learn with flashcards, games, and more AP Psychology Chapter 8 Vocabulary (Myers) . Sexual Orientation.
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Some scientists say that sexual motivation is one of the big end important aspects of humanity. If we were not motivated to have sex, then we purposes would not procreate have babies and the human species would end. So according to that logic, feeling like you hunger to have sex being horny is just you doing your job as part of the human species way to escort one for the team.
Although we have been having copulation since the dawn of humans, we have only began of consequence scientific study of sex in the United States 60 years ago. The first major scientist to analyze human sexual demeanor in the US was Alfred Kinsey.
Kinsey, who studied the genealogy of flies by following, set out and surveyed a lot of people of their erotic behaviors. But what made Kinsey so important was 1. They brought hundreds of volunteers into their lab and observed them having various types of coition. They used tools to calculate penile length and blood spread and vaginal expansion and lubrication.
They perform thousands of trials and their results over a twenty year period were far-ranging. The highlight of their check in was the physiological breakdown of the sexual act called the sexual response cycle , which is broken down into four stages and there will be no pictures- use your imagination:.
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Choice Between Two Men - What Should I Do? Ch 8 Vocab from ap psychology book myers Learn with flashcards, games, and more AP Psychology Chapter 8 Vocabulary (Myers) . Sexual Orientation. Some scientists say that sexual motivation is one of the most important aspects of They even tried to "cure" homosexuality and claimed a 30% failure rate..
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