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Sexual orientation ap psychology book


Its Development in Men and Women is a book about the development of sexual orientation by the psychologist Alan P. Bell and the sociologists Martin S.

, Gender Roles, behaviors that...

Weinberg and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, in which the authors reevaluate what were at the time of its publication widely held ideas about the origins of heterosexuality and homosexualitysometimes rejecting entirely the factors proposed as causes, and in other cases concluding that their importance had been exaggerated. Together with its Statistical AppendixSexual Preference was the conclusion of a series of books including Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography and Homosexualities: Using data derived from interviews conducted in and with subjects in the San Francisco Bay AreaBell et al.

They found that while homosexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to have felt especially close to their mothers, this had almost no effect on the development Sexual orientation ap psychology book male homosexuality. Poor father-son relationships appeared to be weakly connected to male homosexuality. Homosexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to describe their relationships with their mothers as negative, and to have detached or hostile fathers, but only the latter factor seemed significant.

In both sexes, but especially in men, homosexuality was connected to "Childhood Gender Nonconformity", which was a measure partly of behavior more typical of the opposite sex and partly of subjective feelings of masculinity and femininity. Sexual abuse and labeling by others played no significant role.

They suggested that while bisexuality is subject to influence by social and sexual learning, the development of Sexual orientation ap psychology book and homosexuality may have a biological basis, possibly influenced by hormonal factors. They hoped that demonstrating a biological basis to homosexuality would have beneficial effects such as increasing tolerance of gay people. Seen as likely to provoke controversy even before its publication, Sexual Preference received considerable media attention, and mixed reviews.

Critics questioned Bell et al. Nevertheless, some reviewers complimented Sexual Preference for its authors' challenge to established views about the causes of homosexuality, and it eventually came to be considered a classic work.

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It is one of the most frequently cited retrospective studies relating to sexual orientation, credited by psychologists with disproving psychoanalytic theories about the development of homosexuality. It was the last study on homosexuality released by the Institute for Sex Research.

Together with its separately published Statistical AppendixSexual Preference was the concluding volume of a series of books including Homosexuality: Weinberg, Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, The study's data were derived from interviews conducted in and with " homosexual and heterosexual men and women living in the San Francisco Bay Area.

The interview schedule included approximately questions. Most offered respondents a limited number of possible answers, though some allowed respondents to answer as they wished. In their view, theories about the origins of sexual orientation had usually not been rigorously tested prior to their study, partly because some of them, including those advanced by psychoanalysts, use concepts which are hard to "pin down and operationalize.

They argued, however, that the fact that their data was not obtained from "Sexual orientation ap psychology book" sources was a strength, that attempting to access unconscious Sexual orientation ap psychology book risks selective interpretation of the data, and that "if the differences between homosexual and heterosexual patterns of development Sexual orientation ap psychology book really as great as psychoanalytic theory claims" then such differences would be reflected to at least some extent in the reports of their respondents.

They observed that some gay rights activists might object to their study on principle, and suspect that they wanted to find a way to prevent homosexuality. However, they argued that ideas about the development of homosexuality contribute to prejudice against homosexuals, and that so long as heterosexuals accepted largely untested theories that see homosexuality as the result of a bad upbringing, their negative attitudes toward homosexuals would never change.

They considered their sample of homosexual adults more representative than those used in previous studies, and argued that examining blacks separately from whites, and men separately from women, helped them to determine the extent to which patterns of homosexual and heterosexual development depend on race and sex.

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