The present study, after outlining the general historical developments which characterized the kingdoms involved, namely Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, in the early decades of Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating fourteenth century, retraces the immediate preliminaries of the diplomatic summit, before all the efforts at eliminating the political and territorial conflicts which opposed Poland and Bohemia on the one hand, and Poland and the Teutonic order on the other hand, through the mediation of Charles I of Hungary, the senior ranking ruler of the region.
The study examines all the chief agreements concluded during the conference, on the basis of all the available charters and the narrative sources, carefully accounting for the differences of viewpoints which characterize the narratives of chroniclers from the various countries.
Finally, the study makes an effort at establishing, upon the amounts of food consumed, the number of the respective retinues of the Polish and Czech rulers, Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating thereby determine whether the numbers involved could be regarded as average or whether they implied a conscious show of strength on the part of the two kings. Fourteenth-century diplomacy, Central European "Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating," princely retinues.
The historical sources unanimously testify that here, in the autumn ofthe leaders of Central European kingdoms held an international conference, a so-called royal summit, in order to resolve international disputes.
The meeting was held in the court of the Hungarian King Charles I of Anjou, the actual initiator of the conference. The Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating significance of this location led to the extension of the upper castle with a massive keep by the Danube, as well as the construction of a fortified wall that connected the upper and lower castles, turning the hillside into a formidable system of fortifications. It was here that the central court and the administration were established.
The excavation of the buildings of the royal court destroyed under Ottoman rule has been ongoing since Archaeologists have uncovered the foundations of the palace built by the Angevins, where an assassination was attempted against Charles I in In order to understand the reasons that led to the royal summit one needs to study the circumstances of the respective countries at the beginning of the fourteenth century.
Although the spread of the Black Death and other epidemics in this period in a sense marked the closure of the Middle Ages in Western Europe, the culture of chivalry was at that time still in full bloom. The fourteenth-century history of the three Central European kingdoms, Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, features a time of progress and development reflected in similar ways in each country.
At the beginning of the century all three neighboring kingdoms had been experiencing frictions and social unrest. By the second half of the century the three leaders had managed to resolve internal conflicts and build up strong countries. The demanding tasks that all three countries were about to face influenced as a matter of fact their relationship to one another. The rulers of Poland and Hungary supported each other in their struggles against the oligarchs in their own territories, and this alliance would remain one of the pillars of Central European politics throughout the fourteenth century.
One indication of this is that Charles of Anjou, having suffered the untimely loss of his first two wives, married Beatrice of Luxemburg, sister of the king of Bohemia, in The death of Beatrice inhowever, put an early end to this marriage.
With the subsequent worsening of Hungarian—Austrian relations, the ties between the two kings strengthened, thanks to the long-standing animosity between the Luxemburgs and the Habsburgs. According to the rules of contemporary international relations, such a claim was legally justifiable and involved the whole heritage of Wenceslas III — The Piasts had intended to lay claim to Silesia, a one-time Polish territory, but by the beginning of the fourteenth century the majority of the Silesian rulers were already under the overlordship of the Luxemburgs.
Once in power, Casimir launched himself into the task of sorting out matters left to him by his father. Poland was not only burdened by the feud with the Luxemburgs but also by territorial disputes with the Teutonic Order. With the new king on the Polish throne, John of Luxemburg also took an interest in improving Bohemian—Polish relations, for he was in search of an ally against his long-time enemies, the Austrians and Emperor Louis of Bavaria, with whom he had disputes over the heritage of Henry, Duke of Carinthia.
Inin order to settle the dispute over the Polish territories, the parties involved decided to choose arbiters: Chief among his motives was his long-term goal to lay claim to the Polish throne for the Angevin dynasty.
In the treaty he included King Charles of Hungary along with two Polish dukes as bails to confirm the peace treaty with their charters.
Casimir authorized his deputies to follow the advice of the representatives of the Hungarian king throughout the peace process. The deputies also had the right to assume financial responsibilities on behalf of the king up to 30, silver marks.
The Polish politicians were well aware that reimbursement of the financially unstable Bohemian king would be the key to the solution. Consequently, King John, along with his son, waived his rights concerning Poland, while the Polish king gave up "Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating" claim to overlordship over Bohemian-governed Silesia and Masovia Plock. The agreement was documented in a charter issued by the representatives of Casimir and sealed by their own seals, upon the promissory note that the Polish king would confirm it as well.
The copy, dated September 3 and issued and sealed by the Hungarian king, has survived in the Czech royal archives. The time was now ripe for the commencement of the negotiations between the arbiters and for the meeting of the three kings.
At the beginning of Novemberthe year-old Hungarian King Charles of Anjou invited and hosted his brother-in-law and ally, the year-old Polish
Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating Casimir III, the year-old Bohemian King John of Luxemburg, along with his year-old son Charles, Margrave of Moravia the future Emperor Charles IVand a great number of Polish, Silesian, and German princes as part of their delegations, as well as the representatives of the Teutonic Order, for over three to four weeks.
Contemporary chroniclers soon realized the significance of this event and reported on it in several accounts in all the countries involved. These documents typically highlight one aspect of the event while leaving others in the background.
Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating In contemporary Czech historiography, represented by the Chronicle of Francis of Prague, compiled in the first half of the fourteenth century, the attitude is illustrated by the very Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating of its relevant chapter: The king of Bohemia, in the company of his firstborn, Charles, and several noblemen, went peacefully to Hungary and visited its king, Charles.
There he spent three weeks, in the course of which they mutually preserved the fidelity and concord which existed between them, and confirmed them by oath, whereupon the king of Bohemia and his retinue returned to his kingdom, loaded with gifts.
He took with him to Prague Casimir, already king of Poland, to whom he had sold Poland for twenty thousand marks in the presence of the king of Hungary. Here the Polish king spent several days, seeing many honors lavished upon him, and then returned home, where he proclaimed the happy news of having obtained the right and title to the Kingdom of Poland. While still in Hungary, these three kings had sworn a mutual alliance against all princes contra omnes principes. Part of this alliance was a promise that the daughter of the Polish king would be given in marriage to the brother-in-law of the king of Bohemia, namely the five-year-old son of Henry, duke of Bavaria, who was called John.
Charles of Luxemburg, Margrave of Moravia and later Holy Roman Emperor, offers an account of the congress in his autobiographies, which amounts to a contemporary report on the "Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating," given that he attended it in person. No wonder he does not go into details about the formalities of hospitality, nor does he provide insight into the dynamics of the talks; yet it comes rather as a surprise that he emphasizes the Bohemian—Polish—Hungarian alliance only, without discussing the arbitration process.
This king had earlier been married to the sister of our father, but she had died, and now he was married to the sister of King Casimir of Krakow, with whom he fathered three sons: In that place King Charles brought about a peace between our father and the king of Krakow, by the terms of which our father renounced the rights belonging to him over Lesser Poland, namely Gniezno and Kalisz and the other provinces of Lesser Poland.
It was thus that this war was brought to an end by the mediation of the aforementioned king of Hungary. In this he allied himself and promised to aid our father against the duke of Austria, who had taken the duchy of Carinthia from our brother, and against the aforementioned Louis [ie.
The following princes were allied together: While he thus captured the essence of the event, he provided the text of the charter of peace as well: King Casimir goes there to present his case in person.
King John of Bohemia is there too. Each side presents its case and the documents to back it. But the King of Bohemia behaves more as an advocate for the Knights, than as an arbitrator, and is especially concerned that his sale of Pomerania to the Knights, which had brought him a very sizeable sum in coin, silver and gold, should not be invalidated.
This is a bitter blow for Casimir, for it deprives him of part of his inheritance, but, knowing Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating weak he is and afraid lest he become weaker still should hostilities be resumed, for he has enemies enough already and is considering declaring war on Ruthenia, he accepts even the condition that the castle of Nieszawa, though belonging to Kujawy, is to remain with the Order, thus giving the latter control of both banks of the Vistula and enabling it to use the river as a waterway.
It is further decided that all liegemen, whether of King Casimir or of the Order, who have expelled from their properties, are to be allowed to return and have their properties and the favour of their liege lord restored to them; or, should they prefer, they may sell their properties and go elsewhere.
These decisions are pronounced on November Let it be quoted here word for Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating, also because this will be the starting point for our attempt to establish the numbers of the retinues present: And so it happened. For the lunch of the Polish king 1, loaves of bread and other foods, as well as barrels of wine were provided. The king of Hungary presented the king of Bohemia with various sorts of jewellery: Because the king of Poland was to pay homage to the king of Bohemia, and because Charles of Hungary took the sister of the Polish king as his wife, King Charles gave him marks of the finest gold so as to save him from paying taxes to the Bohemian king.
It was resolved that in the event of an enemy attack on any one of these countries, the others would the one in trouble. And this has been sealed by an oath among one another.
Although the chronicles do contain a kernel of truth, the events that they describe often occurred in different places, at different times, and not in the way they suggest.
On the basis of the documents connected more immediately to the conference, it is possible to draw a more realistic picture. King John, in turn, issued a charter of abdication to be deposited with the Hungarian king. Should Casimir "Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating" to produce the amount missing, the Hungarian king had the choice of giving the deposited charter back to the king of Bohemia or supplying the missing 6, marks himself. The actual celebration of the treaty of alliance took place on November 19, the nameday of Elizabeth Piast, wife of the host king.
Due to the untimely death of the boy inthe marriage was not realized. The signing of the peace treaty took place on the same day as the verbal declaration of the arbitration. A thorough study of the historical sources demonstrates that this was the most important underlying reason for the meeting of the kings.
The adversaries had been conscientiously preparing for the decisive event of the arbitration proceedings. On September 21,the Teutonic Order had the charters underpinning their rights transcribed in the archives of the Grand Master of the Order Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating Marienburg Malbork21 while the Polish king had already submitted a lawsuit against the Teutonic Knights to the pontifical court of law in the summer of This procedure was inevitable because the Grand Master of the Order was absent from the meeting as appears from the charter on the peace itself.
Once the authorization documents had been approved, it came to the presentation of statements and charters by the two sides.
We have no information on the charters presented by the Polish deputies, but the Teutonic Knights certainly had those from the archives at Marienburg in their hands, as well as a complete draft of the peace treaty that they had composed earlier on. After days of negotiations between the arbiters and the
Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating, the arbitration was set down in a charter dated November He also listed the charters which the negotiating parties had to issue with regard to the case: Let it be known that, during the three weeks we spent at the court of the Lord King of Hungary, we arranged your affairs and those of the Codex diplomaticus silesiae online dating, as we could, precisely as your knights who were with us could have reported it.
Item, the Lord King of Hungary and we ought to give testimonial documents on the aforementioned renunciation of the King of Poland and on the concord and agreement between you and the King of Poland. Item, the King of Poland ought to submit a supplication to the Lord Pope in order that the Pope shall make a confirmation of the donation of the lands of Culmerland and Pomerania to you and to the Order.
Item, the King of Poland ought to give documents and receive documents from archbishops and other ecclesiastical and secular persons to the fact that damages of the past war shall not be avenged, and shall not be attacked in any ecclesiastical or secular court.