Sex-specific genetic architecture of human fatness in Chinese: To dissect the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in obesity-related traits, we evaluated the sex-genotype interaction, sex-specific heritability and genome-wide linkages for seven measurements related to obesity.
A total of 1, non-diabetic Chinese subjects from the family study of the Stanford Asia-Pacific Program of Hypertension and Insulin Resistance were used to search for quantitative trait loci QTLs responsible for the obesity-related traits.
Pleiotropy and co-incidence effects from the QTLs were also examined using the bivariate linkage approach. We found that sex-specific differences in heritability and the genotype-sex interaction effects were substantially significant for most of these traits. Sex-specific analyses demonstrated that these linkage signals all resulted from females rather than males. Most of these QTLs for obesity-related traits replicated the findings in other ethnic groups.
Bivariate linkage analyses showed several obesity traits were influenced by a common set of QTLs. All regions with linkage signals were observed in one gender, but not in the whole sample, suggesting the genetic architecture of obesity-related traits does differ by gender. These findings are useful for further identification of the liability genes for these phenotypes through candidate genes or genome-wide association analysis.
Multivariate genetic architecture of the Anolis dewlap reveals both shared and sex-specific features of a sexually dimorphic ornament. Darwin viewed the ornamentation of females as an indirect consequence of sexual selection on males and the transmission of male phenotypes to females via the 'laws inheritance'. Although a number of studies have Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction this view by demonstrating substantial between-sex genetic covariance for ornament expression, the majority of this work has focused on avian plumage.
Moreover, few Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction have considered the genetic basis of ornaments from a multivariate perspective, which may be crucial for understanding the evolution of sex differences in general, and of complex ornaments in particular. Here, we provide a multivariate, quantitative- genetic analysis of a sexually dimorphic ornament that has figured prominently in studies of sexual selection: Using data from a paternal half-sibling breeding experiment in brown anoles Anolis sagreiwe show that multiple aspects of dewlap size and colour exhibit significant heritability and a genetic variance-covariance structure G that is broadly similar in males G m and females G f.
Whereas sexually monomorphic aspects of the dewlap, such as hue, exhibit significant between-sex genetic correlations Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction mfsexually dimorphic features, such as area and brightness, exhibit reduced r mf values that do not differ from zero. Using a modified random skewers analysis, we show that the between-sex genetic variance-covariance matrix B should not strongly constrain the independent responses of males and females to sexually antagonistic selection.
Our microevolutionary analysis is in broad agreement with macroevolutionary perspectives indicating considerable scope for the independent evolution of coloration and ornamentation in males and females.
Genetic correlations and sex-specific adaptation in changing environments. Females and males have conflicting evolutionary interests. Selection favors the evolution of different phenotypes within each sex, yet divergence between the sexes is constrained by the shared genetic basis of female and male traits.
Current theory predicts that such "Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction" antagonism" should be common: However, these predictions apply in temporally stable environments. Environmental change has been shown empirically to realign the direction of selection acting on shared traits and thereby alleviate signals of sexually antagonistic selection. Yet there remains no theory for how common sexual antagonism should be in changing environments.
Here, we analyze models of sex-specific evolutionary divergence under directional and cyclic environmental change, and consider the impact of genetic correlations on long-run patterns of sex-specific adaptation. We find that environmental change often aligns directional selection between the sexes, even when they have divergent phenotypic optima. Nevertheless, some forms of environmental change generate persistent sexually antagonistic selection that is difficult to resolve.
Our results reinforce recent empirical observations that changing environmental conditions alleviate conflict between males and females. They also generate new predictions regarding the scope for sexually antagonistic selection and its resolution in changing environments. Sex-specific genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: The independent evolution of the sexes may often be constrained if male and female homologous traits share a similar genetic architecture.
Thus, cross-sex genetic covariance is assumed to play a key role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism SD with consequent impacts on sexual selection, population dynamics, and speciation processes. We compiled cross-sex genetic correlations r MF Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction from sources to assess the extent to which the evolution of SD is typically constrained and test several specific hypotheses.
First, we tested Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction r MF differed among trait types and especially between fitness components and other traits. We also tested the theoretical prediction of a negative relationship between r MF and SD based on the expectation that increases in SD should be facilitated by sex-specific genetic variance.
We show that r MF is usually large and positive but that it is typically smaller for fitness components. This demonstrates that the evolution of SD is Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction genetically constrained and that sex-specific selection coefficients may often be opposite in sign due to sub-optimal levels of SD.
Most importantly, we confirm that sex-specific genetic variance is an important contributor to the evolution of SD by validating the prediction of a negative correlation between r MF and SD. Sex-specific genetic effects in physical activity: The objective of this study is to present a model to estimate genetic effects on physical activity PA levels and sedentary behaviour SB using three generation families.
The sample consisted of families covering three generations from Portugal. Sex-specific effects were assessed by genotype-by-sex interaction GSI models and sex-specific heritabilities. GSI effects and heterogeneity were tested in the residual environmental variance. Sex-specific heritability estimates were significantly higher in males only for WT, with a male-to-female difference in heritability of Low to moderate genetic effects on PA and SB traits were found.
Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. "Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction" was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits r A were low.
Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes r MF in traits that are only moderately weight at emergence to slightly longevity sexually dimorphic.
Furthermore, we found an increased sire [Formula: Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females.
Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits rA were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes rMF in traits that are only moderately weight at emergence to slightly longevity sexually dimorphic.
Furthermore, found an increased sire compared to dam variance component within trait and sex.
Exacerbation of autoimmune neuroinflammation by dietary sodium is genetically controlled and sex specific. Multiple sclerosis MS is a debilitating autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease influenced by genetics and the environment.
MS incidence in female subjects has approximately tripled in the last century, suggesting a sex-specific environmental influence. Recent animal and human studies have implicated dietary sodium as a risk factor in MS, whereby high sodium augmented the generation of T helper Th 17 cells and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAEthe principal model of MS.
However, whether dietary sodium interacts with sex or genetics remains unknown. Here, we show Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction high dietary sodium exacerbates EAE in a strain- and sex-specific fashion. Furthermore, we found that the high-sodium diet did not augment Th17 or Th1 responses, but it did result in increased blood—brain barrier permeability and brain pathology.
Our results demonstrate that the effects of dietary sodium on autoimmune neuroinflammation are sex specificgenetically controlled, and CNS mediated. Furthermore, we found that the high-sodium diet did not augment Th17 or Th1 responses, but it did result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability and brain pathology.
Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations. Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia.
Furthermore, we Bogdan dumitrescu asexual reproduction the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups.
We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups.