Rates of sexually transmitted infections STIs in Canada are on the rise. There are many different types of STIs. Some of the more common ones include gonorrhea, chlamydiaTrichomonas vaginalishuman papillomavirus HPVherpes and syphilis. HPV can cause the growth of genital warts on or around the genitals or rectum. Most STIs can also infect the mouth and throat. STIs can cause swelling, redness and pain in the infected area. However, many people who have an STI have no symptoms at all—this is known as being asymptomatic—so neither they nor their partner may realize they are infected.
Although all STIs are treatable, only some can be cured through treatment and completely cleared from the body. STIs that can be cured Sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids treatment include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis and Trichomonas vaginalis.
Sexually transmitted infections are caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, also known as germs.
This leads to the symptoms associated with many STIs, such as redness, swelling and pain. For example, if someone has a vaginal STI, then the inflammatory response will recruit more immune cells to the lining of the vagina. Research suggests that HIV-negative individuals with an STI may be at increased risk of becoming infected with HIV through anal sex, vaginal sex, frontal sex a term used by some trans people to Sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids to sex using genitals on the front of the body and oral sex.
Scientists believe that inflammation plays an important role. Although the inflammatory response is Sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids to help fight the sexually transmitted infection, HIV likes to infect some of these recruited immune cells, also known as CD4 cells. Again, it comes down to inflammation. Some of the immune cells in a person living with HIV are already infected with HIV, therefore the inflammatory response brings more HIV contained in the infected immune cells to the site of the STI in the genitals or rectum.
Consequently, more HIV enters the body fluids in that area. For example, a vaginal STI increases the amount of the virus viral load in the vaginal fluid. Research shows that the more virus there is in the body fluids of a person living with HIV the higher the risk of passing HIV to someone else. In Canada, the rate of new STIs is on the rise. For example, if an STI had a rate of inthis means that infections were diagnosed for everypeople in the Canadian population that year.
A recent review of 37 studies found that, on average, STIs may decrease the effectiveness of some prevention strategies that individuals are using to reduce their risk of HIV transmission. Instead, some people reduce their risk of HIV transmission in other ways, for example, by having oral sex instead of anal and vaginal sex, through serosorting practice of choosing sexual partners based on their and your HIV statusstrategic positioning adopting the insertive or receptive role during unprotected sex depending on HIV statuspre-exposure prophylaxis PrEPpost-exposure prophylaxis PEPmale circumcision, and having unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person only if they have an undetectable viral load.
STIs may also decrease the effectiveness of public health strategies being rolled out to reduce new HIV infections in Canada.
One example is the use of antiretroviral treatment as an HIV prevention strategy. It is generally believed that the management of STIs should be an essential component of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.
Reducing the infection rates and prevalence of STIs—through improved STI prevention, diagnosis and treatment—may help reduce the number of new HIV infections that occur in Canada each year. However, research studies investigating whether improved management Sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids STIs can reduce new HIV infections have produced mixed results. It is not completely clear why, but some researchers believe this may be the result of poor study design or other factors, such as:.
But only one out of seven randomized controlled trials exploring STI prevention and treatment as a potential HIV prevention strategy found that this was the case. The successful study was conducted in a region of Tanzania in East Africa.
Another study found that sex workers in Kenya who took regular antibiotic pills to prevent bacterial STIs were no "Sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids" likely to become infected with HIV than sex workers who took a placebo pill. The remaining two studies looked at whether the treatment of herpes is an effective HIV prevention strategy. Compared to individuals taking a placebo pill, the use of daily acyclovir the drug used to treat herpes did not protect HIV-negative individuals infected with herpes from becoming infected with HIV or prevent HIV-positive individuals co-infected with herpes from transmitting HIV to someone else.
STIs can be painful, unpleasant and, in some cases, cause serious complications, such as anal and cervical cancer and infertility. Some STIs can also cause problems during pregnancy and be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her baby during birth.