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Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction

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The gender gap in education that has long favored men has reversed for young adults in almost all high and middle-income countries. According to recent population forecasts, women will have more education than men in nearly every country in the world bywith the exception of only a few African and West Asian countries KC et al. The reversal of the gender gap in education has major implications for the composition of marriage markets, assortative mating, gender equality, and marital outcomes such as divorce and childbearing Van Bavel In this work, we focus on its implications for trends in assortative mating and, in particular, for educational hypergamy: This represents a substantial Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction to previous studies Esteve et al.

We present findings from an almost comprehensive world-level analysis using census and survey microdata from samples and countries spanning from towhich allow us to assert that the reversal Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction the gender gap in education is strongly "Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction" with the end of hypergamy and increases in hypogamy wives have more education that their husbands. We not only provide near universal evidence of this trend but extend our analysis to consider the implications of the end of hypergamy for family dynamics, outcomes and gender equality.

We draw on European microdata to examine whether women are more likely to be the breadwinners when they marry men with lower education than themselves and discuss recent research regarding divorce risks among hypogamous couples. We close our analysis with an examination of attitudes about women earning more money than their husbands and about the implications for children when a woman works for pay.

The expansion of education has not been gender neutral. Historically, men have accumulated more education than women and received the vast majority Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction college degrees. Figure 1 includes data on countries from different points in time from to combining various rounds of census and survey microdata samples: The solid lines in Figure 1 show country trends over time.

It covers the period from to Despite variability across countries, the positive relationship between the two dimensions is undeniable. As populations become more educated the likelihood that women acquire more education than men tends to increase. Middle Easter countries black also show the same positive association.

Europe green and North America yellow have by far the largest proportions of college populations and, in most cases, the highest values of WEA, typically above 0.

Education is one of the main structuring dimensions of contemporary marriage markets.

Men and women tend to marry within the same broad education groups. The origins of hypergamy have been tied to patriarchal norms that characterize marriage practices around the world Therborn, High educational attainment for men pays off both on the labor market giving access to higher salaries as well as on the marriage market making them more attractive marriage partners. These data include heterosexual married and cohabiting couples.

Country points are connected by a line showing trends over time. The strength of the relationship is striking. Wives have more education than their husbands in countries where women in general have more education than men.

This suggests that historical marriage practices may perhaps persist while women have only a slight educational advantage, but as increasing proportions of women achieve more education than men, based on these data it appears very unlikely that husbands will retain their educational dominance in marriage.

Trends over time within countries follow a similar pattern: It could be explained simply by the reversal of the gender gap in education in combination with a preference for high income partners by women and men alike Grow and Van Bavel, In short, the reversal of the gender gap in education in the population appears to move in near lock step with the reversal of the gender gap in education in marriage.

Will the trend toward the end of hypergamy ultimately result in an overall increase of gender equality? One important indication of progress towards gender equality is whether couples in Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction women have the educational advantage are also those in which women earn more.

We find that wives who have more education than their husbands are indeed more likely to be female breadwinners, at least in Europe, where the reversal of the gender gap in education is well established. While there are considerable country differences in how common female breadwinners are, the pattern is quite consistent: In addition, while mothers are much less likely to outearn their husbands than non-mothers, this may be overruled if she has more education than he does Klesment and Van Bavel, Proportion of wives earning more than half of total household income, by relative education of husband and wife, 27 European countries.

Observations include married as well as unmarried cohabiting couples where at least one of both partners earns some income and the woman is 25 to 45 years old; see Klesment and Van Bavel for details. What about marital outcomes? In societies in which wives have more education or earn more than their husbands, Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction relationships suffer?

Evidence from the United States speaks against these fears. Prior to the s when men clearly had more education than women and hypergamy was normative, men who married women with more education were more likely to divorce.

Among marriages formed since the s, wives with more education than their husbands are now no more likely to divorce than other Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction Schwartz and Han "Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction" A similar trend is observed for couples in which women out-earn their husbands Schwartz and Gonalons-Pons This evidence is consistent with the notion that, at least in the United States, couples have adapted to the changing realities of the marriage market and are no longer at increased risk of divorce when women have the educational or earnings advantage.

A recent study for marriages formed in Belgium in the s found that those where the husband has more education than the wife are more likely to dissolve than marriages in which the Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction has the educational advantage.

In line with the American findings, the same study also found "Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction" the latter type of marriage is relative more stable in regions and municipalities where they are more common Theunis et al. The implications of the growth of hypogamic unions for fertility are more difficult to establish as there is virtually no research that measures whether women who marry men with less education than themselves bear more, the same, or fewer children than women married to men with the same or more education than themselves.

A recent European study showed that couples where women have as much Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction more education than men, if anything, tend to have higher fertility compared to couples in which men have more education than women Nitsche et al.

At the population level, the impact of declining hypergamy on fertility may be determined by the extent to which the rise of female-advantaged couples translates into more gender egalitarian roles "Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction" attitudes as predicted by McDonald Will the reversal of the gender gap in education and reductions in hypergamy contribute to more gender egalitarian attitudes?

Our data suggest that there is an association between the reversal of the gender gap in education and egalitarian attitudes, although it is unclear whether it is causal. Figure 4 shows the relationship between our measure of women educational advantage in countries and mean responses to two attitudinal questions from the World Values Survey: Both panels show that countries in which women have more education relative to men are also those that have more gender egalitarian responses to these questions.

We also know that attitudes about wives outearning their husbands Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction changed over time and across birth cohorts with the reversal of the gender gap in education.

Given period trends toward egalitarianism, we would expect age patterns in this measure to underestimate the true extent of social change in egalitarianism on this measure. The consequences of the reversal of the gender gap in education for family life have been under-researched.

Our data provided a rich source for visualizing the universal shift from male to female dominance in educational systems and its concomitant impact on educational assortative mating. The evidence suggests that young people adapt to new demographic realities by increasingly forming unions in which wives have the educational advantage, leading to substantial declines in the historical hypergamic pattern.

Across a range of different contexts e. United States, France, India, South Korea, Kenyathe norms governing marriage markets have proven flexible enough to accommodate the increasing numbers of highly educated women and, as consequence, the numbers of women marrying down has increased steadily. Data for Europe has shown that wives with more education that their husbands are more likely to be the main breadwinner of the family.

Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction

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The reversal of the gender gap in education is also associated with Hypergamous wife sexual dysfunction gender egalitarian attitudes. In a macro perspective, we have shown that the reversal of the gender gap in education is associated with change in couple relationship patterns and outcomes. If participants of the gender equity-fertility theories are correct Esping-Andersen and Billari, ; Goldscheider et al.

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