Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology and Articles on sexual identity main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity.
These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care.
The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies.
It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables.
Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of Articles on sexual identity, between two poles: Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology and mental health care with regards to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT people.
The present paper aims to review relevant concepts in this literature, its historical and current controversies, and their relation to the main psychopathology classification systems.
Concepts and definitions that refer to sexual orientation and gender identity are an evolving field. Many of the terms used in the past to describe LGBT people, namely in Articles on sexual identity mental health field, are now considered to be outdated and even offensive.
Sexual orientation refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted American Psychological Association, The concept of gender identity evolved over time to include those people who do not identify either as female or male: The American Psychological Association ap. In this paper we use the prefix trans when referring to transsexual people. As in the case of sexual orientation, people perceived or described by others as transgender Articles on sexual identity including transsexual men and women may identify in various ways e.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people often suffer from various forms of discrimination, stigma and social exclusion — including physical and psychological abuse, bullying, persecution, or economic alienation United Nations, ; Bostwick et al. Moreover, experiences of discrimination may occur in various areas, such as employment, education and health care, but also in the context of meaningful interpersonal relationships, including family e.
Accordingly, several studies strongly suggest that experiences of discrimination and stigmatization place Articles on sexual identity people at higher risk for mental distress Cochran and Mays, ; Dean et al.
In addition, transgender people have been identified as being at a greater risk for developing: At the same time, data on suicide ideation and attempts among this population are alarming: In particular, adolescence has been identified as a period of increased risk with regard to the mental health of transgender and transsexual people Dean et al.
In sum, research clearly recognizes the role of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables in psychopathology among LGBT populations.